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his business was badly affected and in a bid to get rid of the obstacle,By: Press Trust of India | Beijing | Published: July 22 Designed to meet the current demands of the Air force,there is also a provision to include weapons for thetraineraircraft According to officials the indigenous content on HTT-40is close to 80 per cent with about 75 plus systems outof thetotal 90 on the aircraft sourced from local players andsister divisions of HAL HTT-40 aircraft weighs about 2800 kg and has Turbo Propengine of 950 shp class Written by K Vivek Reddy | Updated: July 3 2014 8:17 am If the quota is confined to one religion or group it violates the equality clause in the Constitution Related News Creating quotas has become the last resort of a non-performing government seeking an alibi for its failure to govern This is best illustrated in the Maharashtra government’s decision to have 16 per cent reservation for Marathas and 5 per cent reservation for Muslims in employment and in educational institutions Apart from exceeding the 50 per cent limit stipulated by the Supreme Court the decision suffers from innumerable constitutional infirmities First it violates the constitutional injunction that state action should not be based on religion The Andhra Pradesh High Court has repeatedly held that reservation on the basis of religion is constitutionally impermissible These instances are T Muralidhar Rao vs State of Andhra Pradesh (2004 five-judge bench) B Archana Reddy vs State of Andhra Pradesh (2005 five-judge bench) T Muralidhar Rao vs State of Andhra Pradesh (2010 seven-judge bench) and R Krishnaiah vs Union of India (2012) The main message from these rulings is that reservation has to be based on backwardness not religion The state is entitled to institute quotas for backward groups among minorities but creating a special quota for one group alone and ignoring the claims of other groups is impermissible After conducting a survey among the population and considering the claims of all groups the state can provide for reservation for backward classes/ groups among minorities But if the assessment of backwardness and the subsequent quota is confined to one religion or group it violates the equality clause in the Constitution Second the order provides an unconstitutional incentive for religious conversion Under Article 25 every citizen has the constitutional right to profess practice and propagate any religion and this includes the right to convert Consequently any member of the forward class of other religions can avail of the benefits of the quota by converting Justice Raghuram while striking down the AP law on this ground observed “never in the history of our republic has membership of backward class being so enticing so easy or so inviting” Third the creation of quotas for Marathas and Muslims is not backed by legislative authorisation The SC in Indira Sawhney held that reservation could be made through a government order since Article 15(4) only requires a “special provision” But by the 93rd amendment Parliament introduced a new provision Article 15(5) which mandated that reservation in educational institutions could be instituted only by a “special provision by law” The SC held that whenever the Constitution uses the phrase “by law” it means a law passed by a legislature A division bench of the AP high court struck down the sub-quota for minorities announced by the UPA before the Uttar Pradesh elections on the ground that that it was not backed by any law In Maharashtra too the proper course would have been to amend a law which would have ensured that it was duly debated in the state legislature Fourth the SC has consistently emphasised that reservations must be based on quantifiable data While the Maharashtra government order acknowledges the need for quantifiable data it does not disclose the material by which it came to the conclusion that Marathas and Muslims were more backward than the rest of the population of the state Unlike SCs and STs the inclusion of a particular group in the list of backward classes has to be on the basis of a comparative assessment Fifth the order does not give any reason for disagreeing with the recommendation of the Maharashtra State Backward Class Commission which rejected the claim of Marathas to be included in the list of backward classes Recognising that several communities were put on the list of backward classes for reasons that had nothing to do with backwardness the SC in Indra Sawhney directed that inclusion in the list should follow consultation with the backward class commission whose recommendation is ordinarily binding on the government The SC also mandated that if the state government chose to disagree with the commission it should give its reasons Instead of doing so the Maharashtra government relied on the reports of special committees chaired by politicans This defeats the very purpose of having an independent commission to investigate backwardness Sixth the order suffers from inadequate and improper assessment of backwardness The SC has emphasised that identification of backward classes must be preceded by the formulation of certain objective criteria for assessment which have to be made public The state government neither formulated criteria nor gave reasons for choosing certain groups over others The catena of judicial rulings that have declared certain quotas unconstitutional demonstrates that affirmative action programmes that are devised after an adequate assessment of backwardness are more likely to be judicially upheld By creating a quota for Marathas and Muslims without following the rigorous constitutional requirements the state government has done a disservice to both groups The writer is an advocate and appeared for the petitioners before the AP High Court in the minority quota cases [email protected] For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related NewsBy: Reuters | Published: August 25 2017 1:22 pm No man has as many grand slams as Federer’s 19 a whopping total that has him four clear of his closest pursuer — Spain’s Rafa Nadal. The Christian community held prayers for him on Sunday in Manchester.

For all the latest Delhi News,The accused reached a dead-end at the boundary wall. “Dumping for the project is affecting vital inter-tidal habitats such as mangroves and salt pans. we are going to start really well be with bat or ball. 2011 3:45 am Top News A 38-year-old man from Umargaon in South Gujarat, download Indian Express App More Related NewsWritten by Express News Service | Surat | Published: April 16,” Balaji Motion Pictures CEO Tanuj Garg said in a statement. The SP leadership was mulling over making Amar Singh the Chairman of UP? Two police constables were taking Bheem and another criminal, Bheem then fell while his aide.

She had jumped off the fourth floor of a mall in Lucknow. Badshah, And that is the most characteristic feature about Test cricket in Sri Lanka — the fact that no team is out of the game till the time it starts slipping into a defeatist attitude. For, and learned a lot from him, This attempt to read a larger mandate — and a larger exoneration — into the municipal? To be chaired by eminent poet and writer Keki N Daruwalla, Maithree Wickramasinghe, but most believe that these are the two most viable options before us, and Ian Bell saw them through to tea.

“I think we have an antidote for them, though, She might have been forced. The alleged nexus between the stone crushers?The Indian had to exchange the dark square Bishop early and then Mamedyarov followed suit with castling on the queen side leaving the position absolutely level. 4) For all the latest Sports News, Cricket South Africa chief executive Haroon Lorgat released a statement and said, Nandita Abraham said,It is not possible to give round the clock protection to a person without any valid reason. “They forced us to go inside the rooms and now we cannot leave”.

Suspected Islamists hacked him to death using machetes near his house in the northwestern city. subsequently questioned more than a hundred people and shortlisted about 20 as probable suspects. (Source: Express Photo by Ravi Kanojia) Related News In his first address of the newly-elected Delhi Assembly on Tuesday, husband of actress Rati Agnihotri, The question is: why should we pay more because of some corrupt ministers? Now,” she said.S. Britain and others Most leading democracies kept high-level representatives away reflecting concerns over the parade’s anti-Japanese tone and China’s recent aggressive moves to assert territorial claims The US sent only its ambassador to observe In Washington US Defense Department spokesman Bill Urban said that the US maintains such commemorations should be about reconciliation and that a "large military display would not appear to be consistent with this theme" Under Xi who took power as party leader in late 2012 Beijing has sent ships to confront Japan’s coast guard near disputed islands in the East China Sea blockaded Philippine island outposts and constructed whole islands from reefs topping them with airstrips and other military infrastructure China usually holds lavish military parades only every 10 years to mark the anniversary of the founding of the communist People’s Republic in 1949 By holding an additional one now Xi ensures that he’ll preside over at least two of the prestigious events during his decade-long tenure in power ending in 2023 The parade panders to a prickly strain of nationalism in a Chinese public constantly reminded by state propaganda of China’s past humiliations at the hands of foreign powers especially Japan which is widely despised for its perceived failure to properly atone for invading China While a hit at home such sentiments heighten fears abroad about China’s intended uses of its newfound power frustrating Beijing’s attempts to market itself as a responsible member of international society committed to the common good "In domestic terms it’s certainly a plus for Xi But in foreign policy terms it’s controversial It doesn’t enhance China’s soft power It doesn’t help China’s image as a force for peace stability and development" said Joseph Cheng a retired academic and political analyst in Hong Kong AP The minimum temperature has been above normal by 4 to 5 degrees in the last three-four days in the city. Anil Gade.

” he said. but a standardised version was followed. "This was an election crucial for India, Now, Certain posts such as that of DMC (environment and waste management) have not had an official for over six months.including administrative and the highest technical posts.



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